Transcription (in the linguistic sense) is the systematic representation of spoken language in written form.
Transliteration is the practice of converting a text from one writing system into another in a systematic way.
One of the first recorded instances of translation in the West was the rendering of the Old Testament into Greek, known as the Septuagint. The Septuagint, not the original text, became the source for later translations into many different languages.
Jerome would later translate the Septuagint into Latin. A version called the "Vulgate". The Catholic Church used this translation for Centuries, with much controversy over this particular version.
Then the Septuagint was translated into local European languages, by Martin Luther into German, by Jakub Wujeck into Polish, and by the King James Bible Translators into the Kings English. In these processes there were mistranslations which can greatly change the original meaning God planned when he ordained the Bible through His followers in the original text.
One of the most horrific mistranslations was of the Hebrew word קֶרֶן (keren) which can be translated into two different meanings, the applicable choice would depend on the context in which it was used. Some translators used it as the word meaning "with horns" incorrectly in their translation. Moses was depicted in numerous art forms (Michelangelo for one ex.) with horns on his head due to the mistranslation, and the determination by millions reading those versions was that all Jews were devils, of Satan. Many people claiming to be Christians used this as the basis for their hatred of Jews. Remember Hitler and the Holocaust? Hitler claimed to be one of those Christians.
In fact, the correct translation from the Hebrew word keren in that context is "A Beam of Light"! The genocide of 6,000,0000 Jews, human beings, children of God, was the result of an insane and evil man claiming to be a Christian following the word of God with his sheepish followers. A mistranslation giving them they believed, the right to bring about the annihilation of an entire race of God's people. He and millions of others were obsessed with following God's Word and killing the Devils they believed the Jews to be.
I am 60 years old and at this point in my life am pretty sure that I will not live long enough to learn the Hebrew language and the methodology of translating the language with all information relating to that time so that I could transcribe the text. (Phew! I can't even think about it) but, I have learned to study the Bible in a different way than merely memorizing a lot of scripture.
I have been led by God to study the Bible by "topics" rather than a scripture. This can take you all the way from Genesis to Revelation while researching that one topic. I have been shown how terribly important the original planned meaning of different words is. I depend on research by others, Christian Hebrew websites, other Christian websites, study books (including other "versions" of the Bible) friends, family and other Christians. And most important, the Holy Ghost which resides in me and directs me as I "need to know".
When Christ ascended he tells us in John 14 that The Father would not leave us alone, He left "The Comforter" to intercede for us and guide us through every decision we make, through fear and pain, love and grace, finances, marriage, bible study, every need that we have. And of the knowledge that is obtainable only through Him, by way of a personal relationship with Jesus Christ our Lord and Savior, only by that personal relationship.
But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.
If somehow now, every copy of the Bible was eradicated from the face of this earth, we would still know right from wrong, we would still have guidance if we have allowed the Holy Ghost to reside in us, we would not be without The Living Word of God, which does not exist on the tangible and degradable sheets of paper but in those of us who are keren, "A Beam of Light" for Him.
Is it that important to understand in depth? To research those root words? To want to Know? Well, let's just say we shouldn't contribute to the creation any more Adolf Hitlers!
In the B'rit Chadashah, The New Testament (בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה in Hebrew) the book of John is a portion of the 5 books of the Gospels [Matthew, Mark, Luke, John and Acts], the Besorat HaGe'ulah which translates to "The Good News of Redemption"
I really like knowing that!